Changelog for 5.1.x¶
- Fixed an authentication bypass vulnerability triggered by rekeying an
unestablished IKE_SA while it gets actively initiated. This allowed an
attacker to trick a peer's IKE_SA state to established, without the need to
provide any valid authentication credentials. The vulnerability has been
registered as CVE-2014-2338.
Refer to our blog for details.
- The acert plugin evaluates X.509 Attribute Certificates. Group membership
information encoded as strings can be used to fulfill authorization checks
defined with the rightgroups ipsec.conf option. Attribute Certificates can be
loaded locally or get exchanged in IKEv2 certificate payloads.
- The pki command gained support to generate X.509 Attribute Certificates
using the --acert subcommand, while the --print command supports the ac type.
The openac utility has been removed in favor of the new pki functionality.
- The libtls TLS 1.2 implementation as used by EAP-(T)TLS and other protocols
has been extended by AEAD mode support, currently limited to AES-GCM.
- Fixed an issue where CRL/OCSP trustchain validation broke enforcing CA constraints (a844b6589034).
- Limited OCSP signing to specific certificates to improve performance (91d71abb16a9).
- authKeyIdentifier is not added to self-signed certificates anymore (f7d04ba6c462).
- Fixed the comparison of IKE configs if only the cipher suites were different (23f34f6ed504).
- Added a Travis CI config, a test script, and some unit test improvements (e.g. the
TESTS_SUITESoption), see DeveloperDocumentation.
- A new default configuration file layout is introduced (with full backward compatibility).
The new default strongswan.conf file mainly includes config snippets from the
strongswan.d and strongswan.d/charon directories (the latter containing snippets
for all plugins). The snippets, with commented defaults, are automatically generated
and installed, if they don't exist yet. They are also installed in
$prefix/share/strongswan/templatesso existing files can be compared to
the current defaults.
- As an alternative to the non-extensible charon.load setting, the plugins
to load in charon (and optionally other applications) can now be determined
via the charon.plugins.<name>.load setting for each plugin (enabled in the
new default strongswan.conf file via the charon.load_modular option).
The load setting optionally takes a numeric priority value that allows
reordering the plugins (otherwise the default plugin order is preserved).
- All strongswan.conf settings that were formerly defined in library specific
"global" sections are now application specific (e.g. settings for plugins in
libstrongswan.plugins can now be set only for charon in charon.plugins).
The old options are still supported, which now allows to define defaults for
all applications in the libstrongswan section.
- The ntru libstrongswan plugin supports NTRUEncrypt as a post-quantum
computer IKE key exchange mechanism. The implementation is based on the
ntru-crypto library from the NTRUOpenSourceProject. The supported security
strengths are ntru112, ntru128, ntru192, and ntru256. Since the private DH
group IDs 1030..1033 have been assigned, the strongSwan Vendor ID must be
sent (charon.send_vendor_id = yes) in order to use NTRU.
- Defined a TPMRA remote attestation workitem and added support for it to the
- Compatibility issues between IPComp (compress=yes) and leftfirewall=yes as
well as multiple subnets in left|rightsubnet have been fixed.
- When enabling its session strongswan.conf option, the xauth-pam plugin opens
and closes a PAM session for each established IKE_SA. Patch courtesy of Andrea Bonomi.
- The strongSwan unit testing framework has been rewritten without the check
dependency for improved flexibility and portability. It now properly supports
multi-threaded and memory leak testing and brings a bunch of new test cases.
- The NetworkManager frontend gained support for PSK authentication.
- If charon.plugins.stroke.prevent_loglevel_changes is enabled, the stroke plugin prevents
log level changes via ipsec stroke.
- The inactivity counter is reset with every rekeying, which means that the inactivity timeout
must be smaller than the rekeying interval to have any effect (d048a319df).
- SQL schemas and example data (IMV) are now distributed and installed in
- A method to register custom proposal keyword parsers has been added (568e302260).
- A deadlock was fixed when installing trap policies (bb492d80b5).
- Fixed a denial-of-service vulnerability and potential authorization bypass
triggered by a crafted
ID_DER_ASN1_DNID payload. The cause is an insufficient
length check when comparing such identities. The vulnerability has been
registered as CVE-2013-6075.
Refer to our blog for details.
- Fixed a denial-of-service vulnerability triggered by a crafted IKEv1
fragmentation payload. The cause is a NULL pointer dereference. The
vulnerability has been registered as CVE-2013-6076.
Refer to our blog for details.
- The lean stand-alone pt-tls-client can set up a RFC 6876 PT-TLS session
with a strongSwan policy enforcement point which uses the tnc-pdp charon
- The new TCG TNC SWID IMC/IMV pair supports targeted SWID requests for either
full SWID Tag or concise SWID Tag ID inventories.
- The XAuth backend in eap-radius now supports multiple XAuth exchanges for
different credential types and display messages. All user input gets
concatenated and verified with a single User-Password RADIUS attribute on
the AAA. With an AAA supporting it, one for example can implement
Password+Token authentication with proper dialogs on iOS and OS X clients.
- charon supports IKEv1 Mode Config exchange in push mode. The ipsec.conf
modeconfig=push option enables it for both client and server, the same way
as pluto used it.
- Using the ah ipsec.conf keyword on both IKEv1 and IKEv2 connections,
charon can negotiate and install Security Associations integrity-protected by
the Authentication Header protocol. Supported are plain AH(+IPComp) SAs only,
but not the deprecated RFC 2401 style ESP+AH bundles.
- The generation of initialization vectors for IKE and ESP (when using libipsec)
is now modularized and IVs for e.g. AES-GCM are now correctly allocated
sequentially, while other algorithms like AES-CBC still use random IVs.
- The left and right options in ipsec.conf can take multiple address ranges
and subnets. This allows connection matching against a larger set of
addresses, for example to use a different connection for clients connecting
from an internal network.
- For all those who have a queasy feeling about the NIST elliptic curve set,
the Brainpool curves introduced for use with IKE by RFC 6932 might be a
more trustworthy alternative.
- The kernel-libipsec userland IPsec backend now supports usage statistics,
volume based rekeying and accepts ESPv3 style TFC padded packets.
- With two new strongswan.conf options fwmarks can be used to implement
host-to-host tunnels with kernel-libipsec.
- libipsec now properly calculates padding length especially for AES-GCM.
- load-tester supports transport mode connections and more complex traffic
selectors, including such using unique ports for each tunnel.
- The new dnscert plugin provides support for authentication via CERT RRs that
are protected via DNSSEC. The plugin was created by Ruslan N. Marchenko.
- The eap-radius plugin supports forwarding of several Cisco Unity specific
RADIUS attributes in corresponding configuration payloads.
- The ipsec pki utility and its subcommands all received man pages.
The command itself is now installed in $prefix/bin by default. So the ipsec
prefix is now optional.
- pki --pub is able to convert public keys to other formats (e.g. DNSKEY or SSH).
- Database transactions are now abstracted and implemented by the two backends.
If you use MySQL make sure all tables use the InnoDB engine.
- libstrongswan now can provide an experimental custom implementation of the
printf family functions based on klibc if neither Vstr nor glibc style printf
hooks are available. This can avoid the Vstr dependency on some systems at
the cost of slower and less complete printf functions.
- Handling of ICMP[v6] has been improved. For instance, traffic selectors with
specific ICMP message type and code can now be configured in ipsec.conf
and are properly installed in the kernel.
- Fixes a regression in 5.1.0 that caused a segmentation fault when reestablishing
CHILD_SAs due to closeaction=restart|hold (e42ab08a).
- Fixes a regression in 5.1.0 that caused IP addresses on ignored, down or loopback
interfaces to get ignored when searching for an address contained in the local traffic
- The calculation of the ESN bitmap length in the kernel-netlink plugin was fixed (e001cc2b).
- When removing configs via stroke plugin (e.g. with
ipsec update/reload) matching
peer configs are not removed anymore, if they are still used by other child configs (791fde16).
- reqids of established CHILD_SAs are reused when routing connections via stroke plugin (32fef0c6).
- Fixed a denial-of-service vulnerability triggered by specific XAuth usernames
and EAP identities (since 5.0.3), and PEM files (since 4.1.11). The crash
was caused by insufficient error handling in the is_asn1() function.
The vulnerability has been registered as CVE-2013-5018.
Refer to our blog for details.
- The new charon-cmd command line IKE client can establish road warrior
connections using IKEv1 or IKEv2 with different authentication profiles.
It does not depend on any configuration files (no ipsec.conf nor ipsec.secrets
but may use strongswan.conf options) and can be configured using a few
simple command line options.
- The kernel-pfroute networking backend has been greatly improved. It now
can install virtual IPs on TUN devices on Mac OS X and FreeBSD, allowing these
systems to act as a client in common road warrior scenarios.
- The new kernel-libipsec plugin uses TUN devices and libipsec to provide IPsec
processing in userland on Linux, FreeBSD and Mac OS X.
- The eap-radius plugin can now serve as an XAuth backend called xauth-radius,
directly verifying XAuth credentials using RADIUS User-Name/User-Password
attributes. This is more efficient than the existing xauth-eap + eap-radius
combination, and allows RADIUS servers without EAP support to act as AAA
backend for IKEv1.
- The new osx-attr plugin installs configuration attributes (currently DNS
servers) via SystemConfiguration on Mac OS X. The keychain plugin provides
certificates from the OS X keychain service.
- The sshkey plugin parses SSH public keys, which, together with the --agent
option for charon-cmd, allows the use of ssh-agent for authentication.
To configure SSH keys in ipsec.conf the left|rightrsasigkey options are
replaced with left|rightsigkey, which now take public keys in one of three
formats: SSH (RFC 4253, ssh: prefix), DNSKEY (RFC 3110, dns: prefix), and
PKCS#1 (the default, no prefix).
- Extraction of certificates and private keys from PKCS#12 files is now provided
by the new pkcs12 plugin or the openssl plugin. charon-cmd (--p12) as well
as charon (via P12 token in ipsec.secrets) can make use of this.
- IKEv2 can now negotiate transport mode and IPComp in NAT situations.
- IKEv2 exchange initiators now properly close an established IKE or CHILD_SA
on error conditions using an additional exchange, keeping state in sync
- Using a SQL database interface a Trusted Network Connect (TNC) Policy Manager
can generate specific measurement workitems for an arbitrary number of
Integrity Measurement Verifiers (IMVs) based on the history of the VPN user
The new strongTNC web application provides a frontend to manage such databases.
This project was started by Stefan Rohner and Marco Tanner as part of their Bachelor Thesis.
- Several core classes in libstrongswan are now tested with unit tests. These
can be enabled with --enable-unit-tests and run with
make check. Coverage
reports can be generated with --enable-coverage and
disables any optimization, so it should not be enabled when building
- The leak-detective developer tool has been greatly improved. It works much
faster/stabler with multiple threads, does not use deprecated malloc hooks
anymore and has been ported to OS X.
chunk_hash()is now based on SipHash-2-4 with a random key. This provides
better distribution and prevents hash flooding attacks when used with
hashtables. To generate reproducible hashes the
can be used.
- All default plugins implement the
get_features()method to define features
and their dependencies. The plugin loader has been improved, so that plugins
in a custom load statement can be ordered freely or to express preferences
without being affected by dependencies between plugin features.
- A centralized thread can take care for watching multiple file descriptors
concurrently. This removes the need for a dedicated listener threads in
various plugins. The number of "reserved" threads for such tasks has been
reduced to about five, depending on the plugin configuration.
- Plugins that can be controlled by a UNIX socket IPC mechanism gained network
transparency. Third party applications querying these plugins now can use
TCP connections from a different host.
See the respective socket options in strongswan.conf.
- Protocol and port can be specified for each individual subnet specified with
the left|rightsubnet ipsec.conf options.
- The closeaction ipsec.conf option is now also supported for IKEv1 (thanks to
Oliver Smith for the initial patch).
- libipsec now supports AES-GCM.
- By replacing several linked lists that exist during the full lifetime of an SA with a
simple array implementation the memory usage per tunnel is reduced by 5 KB or more.
- Responders reuse reqids of trapped policies, making auto=route on both sides more reliable.
- Instead of silently replacing a policy if the reqid changes, the kernel-netlink
plugin now rejects such requests. This has consequences e.g. if two clients behind the
same NAT use transport mode (see #365).
- Capability dropping has been improved. Every plugin verifies that the capabilities
it requires are actually held and requests to keep only those that are really required at runtime.
- Support for silent rules was added to the build system, they can be enabled
V=1can be used to build with a different
verbosity than configured.
- The unique identifier of an IKE_SA is passed as PLUTO_UNIQUEID to the updown script.
- Whether the socket-default plugin uses IPv4 and/or IPv6 can be configured via strongswan.conf.
- Fixed a race-condition if the DELETE for a redundant CHILD_SA created by a responder during a
CHILD_SA rekey collision arrives before the responder's answer to the initiator's winning
- The X.509 certificate decoder provided by the openssl plugin supports IP address blocks (patch by Michael Rossberg).
- scepclient can use a specific source address configured with the new --bind option.
- Negotiation of IKEv1 DPD with Cisco IOS devices has been fixed, if they do not send the
DPD vendor ID in the first message.
- The ipsec stroke exportconncert and exportconnchain commands can be used to export
either a single end entity certificate or the full trust chain for a specific connection.
- The ipsec stroke up-nb and down-nb commands do the same as up and down, respectively,
but they do not block until the command has finished.